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A Glimmering of Light

Around 1860 the appearance of new textbooks and atlases began to stimulate interest in the curious. Muted voices might then occasionally have been heard pleading for the establishment of special skin facilities but the reaction to this was largely hostile, and success was minimal. The established hospitals continued to appoint inappropriate persons, usually surgeons, to take charge of their skin patients, though it should be remembered that Erasmus Wilson, Malcolm Morris, Jonathan Hutchinson and Morant Baker, among others, had all trained as surgeons.

In addition to stalwart flag-bearers such as Tilbury Fox, his brother Colcott and Radcliffe Crocker, there now emerged in London a few men who were able to combine dermatology with general medicine. Even fewer could consider a practice solely confined to diseases of the skin, as private patients, then the only means of financing such an enterprise, were few and far between. Most developed their specialized interests as a sideline; and with time, experience and good fortune, the balance of a practice could be tipped to favour dermatology. In Scotland, Jamieson and McCall Anderson, in London, J F Payne, Robert Liveing, Dyce Duckworth, Stephen Mackenzie, Galloway, Hilton Fagge, Pye-Smith and Cavafy, physicians all, had done just that.

The last two decades of the 19th century were to have a profound influence on the development of the subject. The first important event was the founding in 1882 of the Dermatological Society of London to be followed eight years later by the Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the latter was larger and catered for a wider membership; the benefits of congregation were being appreciated. The second important event was the birth of the British Journal of Dermatology in 1888.

The Dermatological Society of London, was founded by Herbert Stowers and Alfred Sangster, who became the first Secretaries. Neither had studied abroad but both must have been aware of the vacuum that existed in London. The group was originally limited to 23 members to allow a close, uninhibited view of each patient; thus friendly and informal discussions could be enjoyed, it was an activity that brought a breath of fresh air to the London scene. Here was a forum for the best informed and the most enthusiastic, permitting an exchange of views and discussion of problems. The young Whitfield, unofficially smuggled into a meeting, described his experience as "enlightenment for the privileged initiate". The study of dermatology was poised to develop in London largely through the stimulus of this gathering which included Erasmus Wilson, Colcott Fox, Crocker, Malcolm Morris, Waren Tay and Jonathan Hutchinson.

Biographical notes follow on the founder members whose names do not appear elsewhere.
Alfred Sangster (joint founder and Secretary) went from Cambridge to Guy's and obtained the MRCP in 1876. After studying at Blackfriars he was appointed Skin Physician to Charing Cross Hospital, following a German, Hermann Beigel. Tilbury Fox had earlier been there, but for only two years.

J Herbert Stowers (joint founder and Secretary) moved from assisting Dyce Duckworth into the city as no post seemed forthcoming for him at Bart's. Energetic and a good mixer, he supported both editors in the early days of the Journal and proved to be the arch-conciliator at St John's during the struggles over the very survival of the London School of Dermatology.

W H Allchin practised in Wimpole Street and lectured at Westminster Hospital Medical School.

William Morant Baker, a general surgeon and lecturer in physiology at St Bartholomew's Hospital, took over the skin patients after Dyce Duckworth. He reported an inflammatory eruption on the hand seen in the meat porters of Smithfield market, this he termed erythema serpens, now erysipeloid or Baker-Rosenbach disease; he identified acne keloid of the neck. Herniation of synovial membrane from around the knee joint became widely known among surgeons as Baker's cyst.

Evans Buchanan Baxter won two gold medals before joining the staff of the Evelina and King's College Hospitals. He was also one of the Assistant Surgeons to Blackfriars Skin Hospital.

J S Bristowe was Lecturer in Pathology at St Thomas'. An important man in Public Health matters he wrote many papers on diverse, including dermatological, subjects.

John Cavafy, of Greek origins, was a regular attender; he had studied at St George's where he was later to be Physician and in 1882, took on the teaching of dermatology. He wrote on macular urticaria pigmentosa and described annular lichen planus. A fatal case of systemic lupus erythematosus, the first to be recognized in this country, was under his care at St George's.

W B Cheadle, from Cambridge and St George's, became a Physician to St Mary's and to Great Ormond Street.

Dyce Duckworth came to St Bartholomew's from Liverpool. A physician with immense enthusiasm and ability, he was honoured with a knighthood. He studied and wrote on many dermatological subjects.

A B Duffin, before migrating South, had been a Surgeon to the Edinburgh Dispensary for Diseases of the Skin. He joined King's College Hospital as physician assuming charge of the skin department.

C Hilton Fagge, a prominent Physician at Guy's was the author of Principles and Practice of Medicine, a large and famous book which occupied his energies for the best part of 12 years. It was re-edited through four editions by his younger colleague, P H Pye-Smith. He took over skin care at Guy's in 1867 and was regarded as a critical dermatologist with "one of the most dynamic minds of the age". He catalogued the fine collection of Towne's wax moulages. Joseph Towne, a youth of 17 from Royston, had been introduced to Guy's for his artistic skills and he produced some wonderful models in wax (moulages) of skin disease of which Guy's is justifiably proud.

Robert Liveing, moving to the Middlesex Hospital as Lecturer in Anatomy and Physiology after Cambridge and Kings, was promoted Assistant Physician there in 1866, becoming full physician in 1872 and given charge of the Skin patients. In time he relinquished his physician's role and concentrated on dermatology, being designated Physician to the Skin Department in 1879. After UCH and Charing Cross, it was the third such post in a London teaching Hospital. He produced his Handbook on Diseases of the Skin in 1887; his Goulstonian Lecture in 1873 was on Elephantiasis Graecorum or True Leprosy. He retired in 1888 after he had trained J J Pringle to take over the reins.

Stephen Mackenzie, a graduate from Aberdeen, was appointed Assistant Physician to the London Hospital in 1874 and in 1897 found himself officially in charge of the weekly Skin Clinic that was held in a basement. Also a Physician to Moorfields Eye Hospital, he was a friendly colleague of Hughlings Jackson the neurologist and of Jonathan Hutchinson. Although dermatology was a subsidiary subject his clinics soon filled with ever increasing numbers and, as he was able to admit patients to his wards, he could study them more fully than most of his contemporaries. He wrote, in 1893, on dermatitis herpetiformis, on the nature of urticaria, and in 1899, on exfoliative dermatitis. A lifelong sufferer from asthma, from which he ultimately died, he trained J H Sequeira, who, as a full-time specialist, was further to enhance the London Hospital's reputation.

Joseph Frank Payne, after Oxford and St George's worked in various posts before being appointed Physician to St Thomas' in 1884. Earlier he had won a scholarship that took him to the European centres - Paris, Vienna and Berlin - where his interest must surely have been whetted. He joined the staff of Blackfriars Skin Hospital and, throughout his life, revealed his dermatological interest, writing on Observations on Rare Disease of the Skin, onPersistent Erythema, Contagiousness of Common Warts and their Treatment and on the Bacteria in Skin Diseases. Though he taught dermatology at St Thomas' he was not in charge of any skin department there. Payne was keenly interested in pathology, epidemiology and medical history; he was for ten years Harveian Librarian at the College where he became Senior Censor and a Harveian Orator; he had earlier given both the Lumleian and Fitzpatrick Lectures.

P H Pye-Smith, Physician at Guy's and friend of Hilton Fagge, had earlier been Demonstrator of Skin Diseases before taking charge of the department. A fluent linguist and Greek scholar he too had studied at the great centres in Paris, Berlin and Vienna.

Waren Tay, ophthalmic Surgeon at the London, was initially a general surgeon. A contemporary of Hutchinson and Hughlings Jackson, he was a shy, modest man and probably overawed by them. As Surgeon to Blackfriars Skin Hospital where he had earlier studied with Hutchinson, he became a learned dermatologist. Apart from identifying several specific ocular diseases, Tay translated three volumes of Hebra and Kaposi's comprehensive textbook for the New Sydenham Society.

Frederick Taylor17 for a time took over the Guy's skin patients from Hilton Fagge. He wrote a highly successful Practice of Medicine which ran to 16 editions.

George Thin, a Scottish general practitioner had settled in London to practise privately. Having studied in Vienna he decided to specialize in tropical diseases, but, after prolonged ill-health he was to die young.

The above group includes most of the notable London figures of the period. In 1883 McCall Anderson, Walter Smith of Dublin and Brooke of Manchester, all influential and respected men, were elected "non-resident" members to give the Society a broader representation. As in many clubs, some of the original members were clearly not totally committed to the main cause, but were judged, for various reasons, worthy of inclusion.

Over the years more were admitted, and in 1895, 17 were introduced but the numbers were still kept low enough to ensure that the patients could be viewed comfortably. One late addition to the membership should be noted:

William Anderson, a surgeon at St Thomas' from 1886, was nominated to be in charge of skin patients, and became expert in the surgical treatment of lupus vulgaris. He was an unusual and artistic man, having earlier been Professor of Anatomy in the Tokyo Naval College for 10 years, so becoming a connoisseur of Japanese paintings. On his return to London he was appointed anatomist to the Royal Academy and continued to be closely involved in the London art world. For a time he served the Editor of our journal in an advisory capacity. In 1897 he presented to the Society his patient, which with Fabry's the following year, established the identity of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. He died prematurely in 1906.

Elegant rooms at the Medical Society of London, still surviving in Chandos Street and where Willan had first expounded his views, were used for these meetings. The informal gatherings were run democratically by an executive Council and two secretaries, the monthly meetings were clinical and as there was no President, a Council member would always take the chair. Once a year a special subject would be chosen for discussion and this meeting would be held in the home of a member, doubtless with agreeable social overtones. Understandably membership became coveted, in Whitfield's view it represented Dermatology's "Blue Riband".

For 15 years Colcott Fox kept the records, which were often pithy: they were published in the British Journal of Dermatology in 1907. In that year a special dinner to mark 25 years of the Society's existence was held in Pagani's Restaurant. Jonathan Hutchinson, reminiscing on the progress that had been made over those early days, paid tributes to Erasmus Wilson and also to James Startin, co-founder and for a time the one and only physician at Blackfriars Skin Hospital. Recalling the International Congress of 1896 he recounted Ferdinand von Hebra's concern at the distressing lack of scientific activity in London.

The Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ireland was promoted by J H Stowers and Marmaduke Shield, a surgeon at St George's Hospital and involved with the skin clinics there. They were the first secretaries while the council and Vice-Presidents were drawn from a wide field. It was not as select a body as the Dermatological Society of London; its membership, largely general practitioners supported by a few senior men, soon exceeded a hundred. Meetings were held at St John's and the reports were sometimes published in the British Journal of Dermatology, though Pye-Smith's first Presidential address appeared in the Society's own short-lived Transactions. Naturally the meetings were clinical, rarely a symposium was organized. McCall Anderson came from Scotland to be President in 1905 and he happily reminisced over his experiences in Vienna at the feet of the "genial" Ferdinand von Hebra.

The Society's independence was short lived, for having merged with the Dermatological Society of London, they were to be absorbed by the newly formed Royal Society of Medicine, forming the core of the Dermatological Section.

International meetings, both clinical and scientific, were beginning to be held in the main European centres. They were well publicised and would be visited by a cohort from this country, the events often being reported in our journal with enthusiasm if not a little envy. In the USA the American Dermatological Association had followed hard on the heels of that in New York; the New World was forging ahead.

International Congresses of Medicine were already regular events and often included a Section for Dermatology. At the 1894 meeting in Rome for instance, Malcolm Morris presented a paper on "The present position of Lichen". Three years later, the meeting in Moscow was planned for Professor Pospelow to show off his new 60-bedded department, but owing to administrative confusion, the unit had not been commissioned in time so only empty wards were on view.

The first International Congress of Dermatology was held, appropriately, in Paris in 1889. Paris and Vienna were the two pre-eminent centres.L'Hôpital St Louis had been founded in 1607 to cope with pestilence; it boasted some 600 beds, providing students a unique clinical experience. There were six separate services with appropriate staff, laboratories, library and lecture rooms; facilities there were beyond belief. The English contingent of Malcolm Morris, Crocker, Colcott Fox, Brooke and Pringle were outnumbered both by those from Scotland and from the USA.

The second International Congress of 1892 was held in Vienna with Kaposi as President and Gustav Riehl as Secretary. It was reported in great detail in the British Journal of Dermatology of 1894. The five original British delegates were this time joined by Jonathan Hutchinson, Alfred Eddowes, on the staff of St John's, and Leslie Roberts from Liverpool, an ardent student of microbiology. The third (1896) was in London and with Jonathan Hutchinson as President, one day was devoted to discussing Syphilis. It was held in the Examination Halls, the clinical and museum items being at St Thomas' Hospital. Distinguished visitors such as Jadassohn, Lassar, Besnier and Unna were quickly made aware of our city's poor facilities.

The British Medical Association were by now holding regular meetings and an active Dermatological Section served as an interface between specialists and general practitioners. The 1893 meeting in Newcastle was given wide coverage; Colcott Fox discussed tinea, Crocker spoke on psoriasis and Hutchinson on lupus vulgaris. Sometimes famous visitors from abroad would be invited to address the section; thus Unna's "Eczema in the 1800s" provoked special interest as he seemed to admire the views of Rayer and Willan, if not of Erasmus Wilson. Unna was again invited to the Bristol meeting of 1894, and with Professor Leloir of Lille, opened a discussion on tuberculosis of the skin. It was a theme that constantly recurred, for the differing clinical patterns were being identified, furthermore Robert Koch had discovered the tubercle bacillus in March, 1892. New treatments, such as the use of tuberculin and actinotherapy were being assessed. These BMA meetings moved around provincial centres; that of 1898 in Edinburgh, with Allan Jamieson as President, was a grand affair and distinguished speakers attended such as Neisser from Breslau, Sabouraud from Paris and Gilchrist from Baltimore. Doubtless they gave dermatology some useful publicity.

* * *

The British Journal of Dermatology, the brain child of Malcolm Morris and Henry Brooke, and enthusiastically supported by J H Stowers, first appeared in 1888. Brooke had worked for a while with Morris at St Mary's and they had become good friends. With such a notable lack of interest at home, their appetites must have been stimulated by their recent European experiences. The journal was not entirely breaking fresh ground, for Erasmus Wilson25 had for a few years, produced his Journal of Cutaneous Diseases, to which Morris, his protégé, had contributed.

Gray36 noted that the early days were marked by financial difficulties. Within three years the founders had to form a syndicate to sustain the project and Colcott Fox, Radcliffe Crocker, Payne and Pringle all gave their support. Six years earlier the Dermatological Society of London had been formed and, with Radcliffe Crocker performing the secretarial duties and maintaining meticulous notes, useful copy was available. These notes are to be found in the Willan Library, thanks to the generosity of University College Hospital and Archibald Gray.

There were soon to be Editorial changes; the two founders retired being succeeded by J J Pringle, who took over in 1891. After five years he was joined by James Galloway, who came to assist and then assumed control in 1901. Galloway later introduced

J M H MacLeod, his pupil and successor at the Charing Cross Hospital and he carried on single-handed from 1905 to 1910.

The Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ireland's Transactions could be included and, in 1896, generously provided some welcome financial help; the London Society, not so quick to respond, later followed suit. Nevertheless despite these extra funds the syndicate still had to make good the shortfall. The lack of a Treasurer, indeed of any proper accounting system, did not help. In 1898 13 more men, the so-called "Co-operating members", were each persuaded to guarantee ,10 a year. When Galloway took over he ensured that careful records were kept; but even so, by 1906 the deficit had reached ,1,000. The guarantors and "co-operating members" were now called upon to honour their pledges.

In 1907 yet another crisis prompted urgent rethinking, as the two clinical societies were to merge into the new Royal Society of Medicine so different financial arrangements for the Journal were urgently needed. The RSM saw no good reason to provide support, so once more a number of dermatologists, 30 this time, were persuaded to act as yet another group of guarantors. In fact they were never called upon, but they did insist on a more business-like organization. The Editor, MacLeod, being in post, was re-elected; the corner seemed to have been turned, the Journal was now independent, without ties and affiliated to no parent body.

The first numbers consisted largely of clinical reports, generally of individual patients, but occasionally of a series. Speculative ruminations were not entirely absent. Classical papers are to be found here, for instance Brooke's account of epithelioma adenoides cysticum appeared in 1892, Savill's report on the curious epidemic of erythroderma in 1894, and Radcliffe Crocker's erythema elevatum diutinum is featured in the same year. MacLeod's "The development of the human epidermis and its appendages" appeared in 1898 and parakeratosis variegata was defined by Colcott Fox in 1901. The last two were embellished by MacLeod's elegant illustrations - he was a skilled water-colourist.

The Early Editors

Malcolm Morris (1847-1924), regarded by Whitfield37 as one of the great figures of the 1880s, qualified from St Mary's. He practised in Yorkshire before visiting Berlin and Vienna to study dermatology and on his return assisted Erasmus Wilson, who is believed to have become warmly attached to this handsome, enterprising man. In 1882 he obtained the Edinburgh FRCS and was elected Surgeon In Charge of the Skin patients at St Mary's, an enlightened move which provoked considerable interest.

He was brilliant at diagnosis and inpatient management, but less interested in histopathology of the skin, then becoming an exciting innovation. A lover of literature, Morris was a perfectionist in his use of the written word, and his Manual of Skin Diseases published in 1879 became a favourite, running to six editions.

Erasmus Wilson suggested that Morris should bring out a new edition of his own Diseases of the Skin and therein oppose the current view that ringworm infections had a parasitic cause. A financial consideration, in fact the bulk of Wilson's fortune, was said to have been on offer. After a day of agonizing, Morris, to his credit, demurred; the funds went elsewhere, possibly the Royal College of Surgeons.

Morris was a pioneer in the therapeutic use of Koch's tuberculin and was early in the field of actinotherapy; he was personally involved with the campaign against tuberculosis. A syphilologist and a knowledgeable leprologist, he established a leper colony in the Essex countryside and that still remains outside Governmental aid. He helped promote the Royal Commission on Venereal Disease, advocating universal free treatment. These were momentous days, Schaudinn had identified treponema pallidum, Wassermann came upon his antigen and Ehrlich discovered arsphenamine.

In addition Morris had a good business head and was an excellent organizer and a competent teacher. Maybe latterly he did not feel completely stretched, for he became interested in a different subject, Public Health, and published two works - The Nation's Health, in 1917, and later, The Story of English Public Health.

He was a founder member of the Dermatological Society of London and its third President, following Crocker and Colcott Fox. He was first President of the Section at the new RSM and at the 17th London International Congress of Medicine in 1913 he also presided over the Dermatological Section. He received the KCVO, an award restricted to those who have given personal service to the monarch, for he had treated King Edward VII for a rodent ulcer, an event that was marked by a special dinner arranged by his admiring colleagues. He died in Bordighera, aged 74, a respected man. His widow, endowing a Memorial lecture at St Mary's Hospital, specified that Dermatology should alternate with Public Health as the subject.

Henry Grundy Brooke (1854-1919) practised in his home town, becoming a household name - Brooke of Manchester. From Owen's college he went to Guy's for his clinical training and thence to Kaposi in Vienna, Unna in Hamburg and Besnier in Paris for two years, studying dermatology and diseases of the ear, nose and throat. On his return, he was offered the post of physician to the Manchester and Salford Hospital for Skin Diseases; his future was decided.

Brooke was a cultured man - linguist (speaking German with a Lancashire accent), musician, an expert judge of painting, and with his mordant wit, an entertaining speaker; his own literary interests ensured an agreeable style of writing. Though he wrote no books as such, he was a much respected figure and is forever associated with the familial epithelioma adenoides cysticum (now trichoepithelioma) , he also studied Darier's disease which he termed keratosis follicularis contagiosa. In 1901 he recorded an epidemic of arsenical poisoning, describing with great clarity the various skin changes to be seen. As he was acutely sensitive himself to ingestion of egg in any form, he maintained a lifelong interest in all types of allergic reaction.

He attracted a great following from Manchester, indeed from the Midlands as a whole, and this brought him an enormous private practice. In spite of this Brooke frequently journeyed South as an active member of the Dermatological Society of London. He introduced Louis Savatard into dermatology, and Whitfield37 regarded him as one of the "great five" at this time. He was finely built and tall, but with the passage of time developed a stoop. He was also remarkably short-sighted. These distinctive features allowed him readily to be identified at meetings as he bent forward intently to study the patients. In 1906 he suffered a hemiplegia from which he partially recovered, though with his confidence badly shaken. It was an event to be repeated in 1919, this time with a fatal outcome.

John James Pringle (1855-1923)38, a Scottish boy from Dumfriesshire, had been sent to school at Merchiston Castle before studying medicine in Edinburgh. After a spell as Resident Physician at the Royal Infirmary he was off on his travels, first to Dublin, then Paris, Vienna and finally Berlin, to study dermatology and foreign languages.

On his return he worked in London as a Clinical Assistant at Moorfields Eye Hospital and as Physician at the Royal Hospital for Diseases of the Chest. These led him to his next appointment, that of Medical Registrar at the Middlesex Hospital in 1883. He made a good impression there, for after only two years he was promoted to Assistant Physician, a stepping-stone towards a full staff appointment. From 1888 he combined the Lectureship in Medicine with the newly contrived post of Assistant Physician to Robert Liveing, then in charge of the Skin Clinics. On Liveing's retirement, Pringle assumed control and decided to concentrate solely on dermatology. He joined the Dermatological Society of London two years after its inception; an active contributor, he was for 16 years its secretary. In 1896, Jonathan Hutchinson, selected him to be the Secretary for the Third International Congress of Dermatology.

"J J" was a delightful and amusing bachelor, sociable and fun-loving, devoted to music and painting, he was always impeccably attired. A short, round, cherubic figure he cultivated a somewhat flowery artistry in dress, speech and in writing. Nevertheless, under the cover of such insouciance and wit he concealed a tremendous capacity for hard work.

When he took over the editorial duties in 1891 he was supported by a strong committee of Brooke, Colcott Fox, Radcliffe Crocker, J F Payne and Morris. This pattern continued for 30 years. During his time, until James Galloway joined him, foreign influence understandably became a feature of the journal as Pringle had made some long-lasting friends, such as Louis Wickham in Paris and Edward Schiff in Vienna; they were to be regular correspondents.

Pringle is remembered for his recognition of congenital adenoma sebaceum, for long known as "Pringle's disease", it was recorded in the Journal in 1890; also for his report of angiokeratoma in the following year. Though he produced no textbook, he edited both the English editions of the St Louis Atlas and Jacobi's Portfolio of Dermochromes; he contributed articles to Quain's dictionary and to Allbutt's system of Medicine. He was also a corresponding member of several foreign dermatological societies. His grounding in general medicine was a feature of his professional approach and "J J" attracted a number of budding dermatologists to work with him, no less than five of whom went on to take charge of their own departments. When the Royal Society of Medicine was going through a difficult time during the 1914-18 war, Pringle, as President of the Section, proved a tower of strength, always able to initiate discussions amongst the depleted audiences.

His life had been blighted by tuberculosis, indeed six months were spent in a sanatorium in 1903 before he was able to get back to his busy life. "J J" battled valiantly for another 20 years, finally dying in 1920 at Christchurch, New Zealand while on a voyage intended to restore lost health. Adamson24claimed him to be "precise and punctilious in everything, a precision relieved by a sense of humour and embellished by a fondness for the ornate", while Whitfield37 noted "that if he had a caustic tongue, he had the kindest of hearts". Lyell38 concluded "Add to that somewhat solemn plainsong chant the descant of his sparkling personality, and we get a captivating harmony that echoes still among the pillars of the history of dermatology".

James Galloway (1862-1922) was involved with the Journal's editorial duties for eight years, assisting Pringle for four and then taking on MacLeod as assistant for four more.
He was a man of fine intellect and wide interests, well read in botany as well as medicine, an enthusiastic antiquarian with an expertise in ecclesiastical architecture; he was also an accomplished pianist. He had come down from Aberdeen to the London Hospital where the influence of Stephen Mackenzie stimulated his interest in dermatological matters, and he was subsequently appointed to the Charing Cross Hospital in 1894 as Assistant Physician charged with the care of skin patients. Tilbury Fox had been there before, but briefly, solely as dermatologist before he returned to University College Hospital. In the interim the Board, having appointed first Hermann Beigel and then Alfred Sangster, now reverted to the more conventional arrangement of "Physician with an interest".

Galloway, an active member of the Dermatological Society of London, proved an effective Editor and the quality of the journal improved notably during his tenure. His own papers described the interplay of the skin with general disease, thus he wrote on mycosis fungoides, lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme. He was of that select band of physicians who were not just "lumbered with dermatology" but who took a scholarly interest in studying, investigating and teaching on his patients. In 1902 he had helped reorganize the Royal Army Medical Corps, and during the 1914-18 war was a Chief Medical Commissioner at the Ministry of National Services. He was surely a man of parts and accorded considerable and wide respect, being awarded a KBE.

John MacLeod Hendrie MacLeod (1870-1954) distinguished himself as clinician, pathologist and writer. He proved to be an outstanding Editor of the Journal and was able to make it financially stable. He himself had been a prolific contributor, concluding in 1938 with Retrospect, outlining 50 years of the Journal's life.

Like so many adventurous and enterprising Scots of that time, he moved South. In his Prosser White Oration, Milestones on a Dermatological Journey39, he recounted his European experiences with Kaposi, Hebra and Ehrmann in Vienna then capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; with Unna in Hamburg, Lassar in Berlin and finally, most inspiring of all, with Besnier in Paris. On his return from the Continent, after taking the MRCP in 1900, he was promptly appointed to the Charing Cross Hospital in 1901 as assistant to James Galloway. Other appointments soon followed - the Victoria Hospital for Children and the Goldie Leigh Hospital where, with Cochrane Shanks40 , he became involved in x-ray epilation for the scalp ringworm which was rampant in many London schools.

"The development of the human epidermis and its appendages" was presented in three separate numbers of the Journal and his Practical Handbook of the Pathology of the Skin, published in 1903, broke new ground. He had cut and stained all the slides himself, indeed he had personally produced and coloured all the illustrations which enhanced most of his subsequent publications. In 1923 he was appointed to St John's Hospital for Diseases of the Skin as Director of Pathology in the London School of Dermatology which was then desperately in need of rejuvenation. This inspired move had been brought about by the far-seeing J H Stowers: MacLeod's organizing ability and industry became abundantly obvious. It was there that he now did most of his work, furthermore mycological interests were being developed. His facilities at St John's proved to be much better than at the Charing Cross Medical School.

By 1930 he had successfully encouraged his eager pupil, Isaac Muende, to collaborate in a second edition of the Handbook and in the same year his monumental Diseases of the Skin appeared. It was regarded as the most comprehensive and authoritative text available at that time. Three years later it was reprinted with additional supplements.

MacLeod was active in the management of leprosy and for many years ran the St Giles Home in Essex where he had followed Malcolm Morris as the Medical Director. He was always happy to conduct visitors around the Home so as to meet the patients and discuss their treatment.

He held three offices in our Association, Editor, Secretary and finally President in 1930. He also presided at the Section meetings of the Royal Society of Medicine and at the St John's Society. He was a corresponding member of many foreign dermatological societies and, as he taught so many of the next generation, acted as a bridge between the 19th and the 20th centuries.

Cultured and well-read, he appreciated fine china, paintings and furniture but he was also a practical man and good with his hands. He was an enthusiastic member of the Clan MacLeod over which he presided in 1947. Dressed in full highland attire, he presented an impressive figure as he gallantly led the redoubtable Dame Flora into the gathering.

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